With a new generation of high-tech cars, automakers are finding it increasingly difficult to meet the emissions standards required by the International Code of Federal Regulations (ICFR).
A new generation, though, offers a chance for automakers to make the biggest strides toward meeting the requirements of the new rules, and there are a number of options available for the car’s engine and transmission, as well as the fuel system.
In addition to the usual options, automakers have started offering an option that allows them to run more fuel-efficient vehicles in some cases.
The first such option, known as the Integrated Fuel Injection, or IFE, has been available on a few models of the 2017 Chevrolet Malibu and 2018 Ford Mustang.
The idea is that automakers can run a more efficient fuel system and lower CO2 emissions through the use of IFE.
Achieving IFE in a vehicle that is not compliant with the ICFR is challenging and often takes years to build and install.
“IFE can help reduce fuel economy and emissions by reducing the amount of fuel used to operate a vehicle,” says Andrew Sallinger, a senior engineer with Advanced Powertrain Technologies, Inc. (APT), a company that makes fuel-injection systems for electric vehicles and hybrids.
APT also offers an option called the Hybrid Fuel Injector, which allows for more efficient operation of an IFE system by using more fuel.
If a car is using a hybrid fuel injection system, the IFE will have a much smaller impact on the car than if it is using an IAEA system, he says.
While IAEAs and IFE systems use the same fuel and are compatible with a wide variety of fuel sources, they require special equipment to work properly.
Hybrids can run the same IAEB and IAEAS system as a diesel car, but with a slightly higher fuel consumption.
That means they require a hybrid IAE system that is also compatible with other types of fuels.
And the IAE systems are often used in hybrid cars in conjunction with conventional gasoline engines.
One such hybrid system, called the Diesel Injectors, can be installed on a hybrid car in the same way a conventional engine would be, using a separate injector, and it has been installed in some models of some hybrid vehicles.
There are several advantages to using an injector in a hybrid system over a conventional system, Sallingsays.
First, it means that the hybrid fuel injector will be able to be used on vehicles that are not compliant, which is a boon to automakers, since it means the IEA rules will not apply to them.
This means that vehicles with hybrid systems that are compliant with IAEs can continue to be sold, he adds.
Second, it will mean the hybrid system is easier to install than the conventional system.
A conventional system can be complicated and difficult to install, especially when it comes to installing a hybrid injector.
Another benefit of using an injection system is that it will require less maintenance than a conventional fuel system, and the system will be safer, because the fuel will not leak, he explains.
Because IFEs are compatible only with diesel and gasoline engines, they are usually more expensive, which makes it difficult for automakers, especially manufacturers with a low profit margin, to sell them, Sillingsays says.
But there are ways to make hybrids more cost-effective and efficient, he points out.
When IAE units are installed on hybrid vehicles, they can be swapped out for conventional units if they need to be, so they don’t have to be replaced, he notes.
Finally, they offer more flexibility in how a vehicle is operated.
With an IBF system, if a vehicle’s operating system is a hybrid, it is possible to operate it with only one fuel source, and if a fuel source is unavailable, the vehicle will switch to a different fuel source.
But with an IBA unit, the fuel source has to be the same as the system’s main fuel source and can’t be the fuel used by other components in the vehicle, such as the engine, transmission or battery, Sallsays says, adding that the unit also requires the same amount of maintenance as a conventional unit.
As long as it meets the requirements for IBF and IBA, the hybrid IFE unit is the best option for hybrid vehicles in the market, he said.
IFEs can also be used to improve fuel economy in certain situations, such when there are fewer than five people in a car.
According to APT, it currently offers two IFE units for the 2017 Ford Mustang and 2018 Chevrolet Malogue.
The 2018 Malogu is one of the first hybrid cars to be fitted with IFE and uses a hybrid diesel engine.
It will also